2. Square Wave
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An ideal square wave is a simple oscillation between two amplitudes, without any intermediate values:
An ideal square wave
Sampling an ideal square wave doesn't work well for most frequencies.
A sampled ideal square wave
Examination of the result reveals an obvious problem: some cycles have an extra sample. When played, it sounds "muddy". The concepts of the Nyquist limit and harmonics will give better insight into the problem, and point to a solution.